Климат, лед, вода, ландшафты

Climate, ice, water, landscapes

Рудой Алексей Николаевич

Catastrophic detachment and high-velocity long-runout flow of Kolka Glacier. Сёрджи Колки на Кавказе

Catastrophic detachment and high-velocity long-runout flow of Kolka Glacier, Caucasus Mountains, Russia in 2002

© Stephen G. Evans a,⁎, Olga V. Tutubalina b, Valery N. Drobyshev c, Sergey S. Chernomorets b,Scott McDougall d, Dmitry A. Petrakov e, Oldrich Hungr f,

 a, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1. b University Centre for Engineering Geodynamics and Monitoring, Akademika Kapitsy St. 30-1-110, 117647, Moscow, Russia. c Vladikavkaz Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences and Government of the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, Kosta Av.935, 362008, Vladikavkaz, North Ossetia-Alania, Russia
d BGC Engineering Inc., Suite 500-1045 Howe Street, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6Z 2A9. e Faculty of Geography, Moscow State University, Leninskiye Gory, 119991, Moscow, Russia.f Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of British Columbia, 6339 Stores Road, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 1Z4Geomorphology

A r t i c l e i n f o & a b s t r a c t 

Article history:
Received 21 December 2007
Received in revised form 14 October 2008
Accepted 15 October 2008
Available online 26 October 2008

Glacier hazards
Glacier-debris flow
Caucasus Mountains
Glacier instability
In September 2002, a catastrophic geomorphic event occurred in the Caucasus Mountains, southern Russia, in which almost the entire mass of Kolka Glacier detached from its bed, accelerated to a very high velocity (max. 65–80 m/s), and traveled a total distance of 19 km downstream as a glacier-debris flow. Based on the interpretation of satellite imagery obtained only 8.5 h before the event occurred, the analysis of seismograms from nearby seismic stations, and subsequent detailed field observations and measurements, we suggest that this remarkable event was not a response to impulse loading from a rock avalanche in the mountainside above the glacier, or to glacier surging, but due entirely to the static and delayed catastrophic response of the Kolka glacier to ice and debris loading over a period of months prior to the September 20 detachment. We reconstruct the glacier-debris flow using field observations in conjunction with the interpretation of seismographs from nearby seismic stations and successfully simulate the behaviour (runout, velocity, and deposition) of the post-detachment glacier-debris flow using a three-dimensional analytical model. Our demonstration of a standing-start hypothesis in the 2002 Kolka Glacier detachment has substantial implications for glacier hazard assessment and risk management strategies in valleys downstream from unstable debris-covered glaciers in the mountain regions of the world.
© 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


03.04.2011 13:51 2162


#66 https://Www. 26.08.2014 09:31
Superb blog you have here but I was curious if
you knew of any forums that covger the same topics talked about in this
article? I'd really like tto be a paart of group where I can get feedback from other
knowledgeable people that share the same interest. If you have
any recommendations , please let me know.

Thanks a lot!

My blog polst - erectile dysfunction remedies most effective ab exercises; https://Www.Facebook.com/: https://Www.Facebook.com/pages/Buy-Penis-Extender/321547084592720,
#65 Julianne 25.08.2014 22:06
Generally I do not read post on blogs, however I wish to say that this write-up very forced me to check
out and do it! Your writing style has been amazed me.

Thank you, very great post.
#64 alpha waves 25.08.2014 08:12
Hi there I am so delighted I found your web site, I
really found you by error, while I was browsing
on Digg for something else, Anyhow I am here now and would
just like to say thanks for a incredible post and a all round entertaining
blog (I also love the theme/design), I don’t have
time to read it all at the moment but I have book-marked it and also added in your RSS feeds, so when I have time I will be back to read
a great deal more, Please do keep up the great jo.
#63 binaural beats 25.08.2014 07:56
whoah this weblog is wonderful i like studying your articles.
Stay up the great work! You already know, a lot of individuals are searching round for this info, you can aid them greatly.
#62 New Balance 574 20.08.2014 11:13
I know this web site offers quality dependent content and additional material,
is there any other web page which provides these kinds of information in quality?
#61 i-doser download 19.08.2014 09:40
Thhen he focuses on tҺе woord "Twit" tօ connect it
witҺ the interface , ɑnd sօ it іs posted.
Fromm chemical ɑnd thermal processes produced fгom oսr eating,kinetic energy produced fгom οur movements, electrical activity produced fгom ouг brain, biomaqss waste produced
fгom our bodies, and fluid flow engendered bʏ our
respiration, we arе prolific energy producing factories.

5Hz): Theta brain waves аre рresent Ԁuring desp meditation аnd light
sleep, including tҺe REM dream state.
#60 domain 18.08.2014 20:25
Hi there! I could have sworn I've visited this site before
but after going through some of the articles I realized it's new to me.

Regardless, I'm certainly pleased I discovered it and I'll
be book-marking it and checking back regularly!
#59 i-doser cracked 12.08.2014 00:14
Binaural beats is a brain response աhen ρresented աith two sliǥhtly
dіfferent tonal ϲhanges іn a sterreo situation. Brainwave entrainment,
аlso knlwn ɑs binaural beat entrainment, mаkes use ߋf 2 dіfferent frequencies
іn each ear to create a third beneficial frequency injside
tҺе mind. Influence on thhe subconscious mind
iѕ unrestricted.
#58 Recommended Web-site 08.08.2014 08:32
Hello to every body, it's my first go to see of this weblog; this website consists
of awesome and in fact good information in favor of visitors.

Also visit my page: Recommended Web-site: http://blogspot.co.uk/
#57 you could try these 08.08.2014 06:43
you are truly a good webmaster. The site loading pace is incredible.
It seems that you're doing any distinctive trick.
Moreover, The contents are masterpiece. you have done a wonderful activity in this matter!

Also visit my web-site ... you could try these out: http://blogspot.co.uk/

Добавить комментарий

Прощай мой дом

JavaScript is disabled!
To display this content, you need a JavaScript capable browser.

О проекте

Всё об удивительном и загадочном мире льда и ледников, ландшафтов и людей и их жизни. Всё о планете Земля и о других планетах.

Интересы: снег, вода, горы, лед, катастрофы, все, климат, рельеф, ледники, приледниковые озёра, геоморфология, гляциология, новые теории и проекты в гляциологии, геологии и геоморфологии, а также качественная музыка и всё интересное и в науке, и в экспедициях, что сочтут для себя важным участники проекта, в природе и в жизни.. ....в общем всё.

Наши новости
Текущая информация для студентов
Ключевые слова

logotipЧитателям, слушателям и просто прохожим: сайт и все материалы, опубликованные на нём -  интеллектуальная собственность владельца сайта, и/или авторов соответствующих материалов. Ссылки на сайт, а также ссылки на авторов публикаций,


(и фотографий, разумеется, тоже) обязательны. Соответствующие законы РФ и других стран известны, лицензии - на месте. Воруют, конечно, и не взирая на копирайты, но мы создали сайт для порядочных людей. Не хочется об этом напоминать, но факт любой недобросовестной ссылки-цитирования или пересказа, во- первых, будет предан широчайшей огласке через сеть всеми популярными научными каналами. А далее, возможно, последует и во-вторых..... Спасибо.

Контакты: ran@mail.tomsknet.ru