Климат, лед, вода, ландшафты

Climate, ice, water, landscapes

Рудой Алексей Николаевич

Catastrophic detachment and high-velocity long-runout flow of Kolka Glacier. Сёрджи Колки на Кавказе

Catastrophic detachment and high-velocity long-runout flow of Kolka Glacier, Caucasus Mountains, Russia in 2002

© Stephen G. Evans a,⁎, Olga V. Tutubalina b, Valery N. Drobyshev c, Sergey S. Chernomorets b,Scott McDougall d, Dmitry A. Petrakov e, Oldrich Hungr f,

 a, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1. b University Centre for Engineering Geodynamics and Monitoring, Akademika Kapitsy St. 30-1-110, 117647, Moscow, Russia. c Vladikavkaz Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences and Government of the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, Kosta Av.935, 362008, Vladikavkaz, North Ossetia-Alania, Russia
d BGC Engineering Inc., Suite 500-1045 Howe Street, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6Z 2A9. e Faculty of Geography, Moscow State University, Leninskiye Gory, 119991, Moscow, Russia.f Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of British Columbia, 6339 Stores Road, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 1Z4Geomorphology

A r t i c l e i n f o & a b s t r a c t 

Article history:
Received 21 December 2007
Received in revised form 14 October 2008
Accepted 15 October 2008
Available online 26 October 2008

Glacier hazards
Glacier-debris flow
Caucasus Mountains
Glacier instability
In September 2002, a catastrophic geomorphic event occurred in the Caucasus Mountains, southern Russia, in which almost the entire mass of Kolka Glacier detached from its bed, accelerated to a very high velocity (max. 65–80 m/s), and traveled a total distance of 19 km downstream as a glacier-debris flow. Based on the interpretation of satellite imagery obtained only 8.5 h before the event occurred, the analysis of seismograms from nearby seismic stations, and subsequent detailed field observations and measurements, we suggest that this remarkable event was not a response to impulse loading from a rock avalanche in the mountainside above the glacier, or to glacier surging, but due entirely to the static and delayed catastrophic response of the Kolka glacier to ice and debris loading over a period of months prior to the September 20 detachment. We reconstruct the glacier-debris flow using field observations in conjunction with the interpretation of seismographs from nearby seismic stations and successfully simulate the behaviour (runout, velocity, and deposition) of the post-detachment glacier-debris flow using a three-dimensional analytical model. Our demonstration of a standing-start hypothesis in the 2002 Kolka Glacier detachment has substantial implications for glacier hazard assessment and risk management strategies in valleys downstream from unstable debris-covered glaciers in the mountain regions of the world.
© 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


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