Климат, лед, вода, ландшафты

Climate, ice, water, landscapes

Рудой Алексей Николаевич

A N Rudoy, V R Baker. Sedimentary effects of cataclysmic late Pleistocene glacial outburst flooding.

Inya-logoНа эту нашу с Виком Бейкером статью, которая вышла почти 20 лет назад - уже сотни ссылок в самых разнообразных изданиях, как и на статью в журнале Science (1993). Можно говорить, что регулярные международные экспедиции и изучение скэбленда во всем мире началось именно вот с этих первых наших работ в международной периодике. До этого я писал в СССР по-русски и, по сути, - для себя. Потому полагаю эту пионерную статью важной. Однако, в России, хотя на неё и ссылаются в соответствующих публикациях, саму работу, как и статью в QI, мало кто видел, ссылаются, в данном случае уже по привычке. Подумалось, как первому соавтору, что пора её выставить с сохранием всех авторских прав издательства и  журнала. На фотографии Артёма Головина - дилювиальные валы-бары в устье р. Иня, Центральный Алтай.




© Sedimentary Geology, 85 (1993) 53-62 53
© Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam

Sedimentary effects of cataclysmic late Pleistocene glacial outburst flooding, Altay Mountains, Siberia

Sed_Geol© A.N. Rudoy (a) and V.R. Baker (b)
(a) Geography Department, Tomsk State Pedogogical Institute, Tomsk, Russia 

(b) Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA

Received June 30, 1992; revised version accepted November 30, 1992

Rudoy, A.N. and Baker, V.R., 1993. Sedimentary effects of cataclysmic late Pleistocene glacial outburst flooding, Altay Mountains, Siberia. In: C.R. Fielding (Editor), Current Research in Fluvial Sedimentology. Sediment. Geol., 85: 53-62.

Pleistocene glacial outburst floods were released from ice-dammed lakes of the Altay Mountains, south-central Siberia. The Kuray-Chuja lake system yielded peak floods in excess of 1×106 m3 /s  and as great as 18×106 m3/ s. The phenomenally high bed shear stresses and stream powers generated in these flows produced a main-channel, coarse-grained facies of coarse gravel in (1) foreset-bedded bars as much as 200 m high and several kilometers long, and (2) degradational, boulder-capped river terraces. Giant current ripples, 50 to 150 m in spacing, composed of pebble and cobble gravel, are locally abundant. The whole sedimentary assemblage is very similar to that of the Channeled Scabland, produced by the Pleistocene Missoula Floods of western North America.


In July 1991, the authors investigated evidence for Pleistocene cataclysmic flooding in the Altay Mountain region of south-central Siberia. The purpose was to compare the recently documented diluvial morphogenesis of the Altay Mountains (Rudoy, 1988a, 1990; Rudoy et al., 1989) with established work on the Channeled Scabland region of North America, which was formed by cataclysmic erosion and sedimentation associated
with outbursts from Pleistocene Lake Missoula (Bretz et al., 1956; Baker, 1973, 1978a; Baker et al., 1987).


In both Eurasia and North America, Pleistocene glaciations are accompanied by the inception and growth of gigantic ice-dammed lakes (Elson, 1992). Recent work at the margins of the former North American ice sheets (Baker and Bunker, 1985; Kehew and Lord, 1987; Teller, 1987) has documented pervasive evidence of Pleistocene cataclysmic outburst floods (j6kulhlaups). Such floods, which are a direct consequence
of deglaciation, may have exerted major short-term influences on global fluxes of water and sediment (Baker, 1993). Shaw (1989) has even proposed that subglacial meltwater may be a major contributor to cataclysmic flooding, although his evidence of fluvially eroded drumlins (Shaw et al., 1989) is disputed by many glaciologists (e.g., Muller and Pair, 1992). In one reconstruction of the late Pleistocene Eurasian ice sheets, Grosswald (1980) envisions spectacular damming of the great north-flowing Siberian rivers with associated spillovers and drainage diversions (Fig. 1). An alternative reconstruction involves much less ponding and diversion (Velichko et al., 1984), but incomplete field mapping and geochronology precludes scientific preference for either of these hypothetical alternatives.

Nevertheless, it is clear that the phenomenon of massive, regionally extensive, highenergy flooding was an important feature of global Pleistocene glaciation. Evidence of such phenomena is to be expected in pre-Quaternary glacial sediments. Physical setting and flood processes The Altay Mountain study area lies in the upper Ob River basin, upstream of the Pleistocene network of Siberian glacial lakes and diversions (Fig. 1). The intermontane depressions of the Altay have long been known to have contained Pleistocene glacial lakes. The two largest Altay Pleistocene lakes occupied the Kuray and Chuja depressions in the headwaters of the Chuja River (Fig. 2). Together these interconnected lakes held at least 1000 km3 during the latest Pleistocene glaciation (Rudoy, 1988a). Water depths reached 600 m with a 900 m stage during an earlier Pleistocene phase (Rudoy et al., 1989). The lake dimensions are comparable to those of Pleistocene Lake Missoula, which held about 2500 km3 at a maximum depth of 635 m at its ice dam (Baker and Bunker, 1985).

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