Климат, лед, вода, ландшафты

Climate, ice, water, landscapes

Рудой Алексей Николаевич

Location for direct access to subglacial Lake Ellsworth. J. Woodward et al.

Эту статью прислал мне только что один из исполнителей работ и её авторов Джон Вудуэрд с котором я познакомился на недавнем Конгрессе ИНКВА в Берне. После открытия подлёдного озера Восток в Антарктиде, на пороге достижения самого озера буровым снарядом возник ряд серьёзных экологических проблем. Одним из способов для решения таких проблем Научным комитетом по исследованию Антарктики (SCAR) было предложено выбрать аналогичное, но меньших размеров, подлёдное озеро в качестве модельного, и провести на этом озере комплекс работ, результаты которых помогли бы решить проблемы, связанные с проникновением в более крупные подледниковые озёра. В качестве такого модельного озера было выбрано, в числе других, и озеро Эллсворт в Западной Антарктиде.
В статье представлена детальная характеристика физико-географических обстановок этого подледникового озера, включающая и результаты батиметрических и комплексных геофизических работ.
Размеры озера Эллсворт составляет 14,7 км х 3,1 км, площадь - 28,9 км2. Глубины озера меняются вдоль длинной оси от 52 м до 156 м, объем воды определён в 1,37 км3. В статье предложены результаты геофизических и геохимических исследований, выполненных авторами на озере в сезоны 2007/8 и 2008/9 годов. - Алексей Рудой.
Animation of Subglacial Lake Behavior

Location for direct access to subglacial Lake Ellsworth: An assessment of geophysical data and modeling
J. Woodward,1 A. M. Smith,2 N. Ross,3 M. Thoma,4,5 H. F. J. Corr,2 E. C. King,2 M. A. King,6 K. Grosfeld,5 M. Tranter,7 and M. J. Siegert3
Received 10 February 2010; revised 19 April 2010; accepted 28 April 2010; published 2 June 2010.
[1] Subglacial Lake Ellsworth has been proposed as a candidate for direct measurement and sampling, to identify microbial life and extract sedimentary climate records. We present a detailed characterization of the physiography of this subglacial lake from geophysical surveys, allowing bathymetry and geomorphic setting to be established. Lake Ellsworth is 14.7 km × 3.1 km with an area of 28.9 km2. Lake depth increases downlake from 52 m to 156 m, with a water body volume of 1.37 km3. The ice thickness suggests an unusual thermodynamic characteristic, with the critical pressure boundary intersecting the lake. Numerical modeling of water circulation has allowed accretion of basal ice to be estimated. We collate this physiographic and modeling information to confirm that Lake Ellsworth is ideal for direct access and propose an optimal drill site. The likelihood of dissolved gas  exchange between the lake and the borehole is also assessed.
Citation: Woodward, J., A. M. Smith, N. Ross, M. Thoma, H. F. J. Corr, E. C. King, M. A. King, K. Grosfeld, M. Tranter, and M. J. Siegert (2010), Location for direct access to subglacial Lake Ellsworth: An assessment of geophysical data and modeling, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L11501, doi:10.1029/2010GL042884.
1. Introduction
[2] Since the discovery that subglacial Lake Vostok possessed a water column of over 500 m [Kapitsa et al., 1996], microbiologists have regarded subglacial lakes as viable habitats for life, which may involve unique adaptations. Additionally, palaeoclimatologists have suggested subglacial lakes may contain records of ice sheet and climate history within sediments on their floors. To identify life in subglacial lakes and to understand the climate history within their sediment records requires direct measurements and sampling. Recent gravity and seismic measurements over Lake Vostok have improved understanding of 3D bathymetry and sediment distribution [Filina et al., 2008], but to
date, no subglacial lake has been accessed.
[3] In 2003 the Subglacial Antarctic Lake Environments (SALE) programme of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) suggested an appropriate first access site would be one of the relatively small subglacial lakes [Priscu et al., 2003]. As a consequence of this assessment, subglacial Lake Ellsworth in West Antarctica was offered as an excellent candidate for direct measurement and sampling [Siegert et al., 2004; Vaughan et al., 2007]. To evaluate the suitability of this lake and determine the prime location for direct access,  information on the lake’s bathymetry and the physical processes operating within the lake are necessary.
[4] During the 2007/8 and 2008/9 seasons subglacial Lake Ellsworth was subject to a detailed ground‐based geophysics campaign, involving towed radar, seismics, GPS and stake measurements. Here we present results outlining the physiography of the lake and its subglacial surroundings. We then present model simulations of lake water circulation and model prediction of basal mass balance. This information is integrated to provide the most suitable location for lake access and to assess the potential risks associated with the concentration of dissolved gasses within the lake.
2. Geophysical Data Collection
lake22.1. Radar Surveys
[5] Radio‐echo sounding (RES) lines totaling ∼740 km were collected in a grid over Lake Ellsworth and the surrounding area (Figure 1) using a ground‐based, 1.7 MHz pulsed radar. The ice sheet surface elevation was determined using kinematic GPS with differential correction from the Midlake GPS base station (Figure 1). Ice‐bed reflection travel times were converted to ice thickness using a mean radio‐velocity in the ice column of 0.168 m ns−1. Estimated RMS errors in ice thickness based on crossover analysis of RES surveys over the lake are ±6.4 m. Surface elevation and ice thickness measurements were then used to construct a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the basal topography of the lake catchment (Figure 1). 
2.2. Seismic Surveys
[6] Five seismic reflection lines, spaced ∼1.4 km apart and aligned perpendicular to the long axis of the lake were completed (Figure 1). With the exception of Profile D, all lines covered the full lake width and part of the surrounding bed. Data were detected using 48 geophones at 10 m spacing. Shot spacing was 240 m, producing single‐fold seismic reflection profiles. Data processing included a normal moveout correction and migration.
1School of Applied Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastleupon‐
Tyne, UK.
2British Antarctic Survey, Natural Environment Research Council,
Cambridge, UK.
3School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
4Commission for Glaciology, Bavarian Academy of Sciences,
Munich, Germany.
5Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research,
Bremerhaven, Germany.
6School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Newcastle University,
Newcastle‐upon‐Tyne, UK.
7School of Geographical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
Copyright 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.
Кстати, немного странную и безадресную, хотя и интересную статью  я обнаружил в поисковом Яндексе. Я размещаю эту статью вот здесь.

18.08.2011 07:52 10381


#1002 site 23.05.2015 07:15
Hаy Day's gameplay was creatrd tο be attainable andd welcoming
tο all gamers, players belonging tο a more
casual audience еspecially.
#1001 carica batteria 23.05.2015 05:15
Good day! I know this is somewhat off topic but I was wondering if you
knew where I could get a captcha plugin for my comment form?
I'm using the same blog platform as yours and I'm having trouble
finding one? Thanks a lot!
#1000 Herbert 23.05.2015 01:59
I love your blog.. very nice colors & theme. Did you design this
website yourself or did you hire someone to do it for you?

Plz respond as I'm looking to design my own blog and would like to find out where u got this
from. thank you
#999 Pixel Gun 3D Hack 22.05.2015 16:59
Hey! Quick question that's completely off topic.
Do you know how to make your site mobile friendly? My web site looks weird when viewing from my apple
iphone. I'm trying to find a theme or plugin that might be able to resolve this issue.
If you have any suggestions, please share. Appreciate it!

Feel free to surf to my homepage Pixel Gun 3D Hack: http://gamingtricks.over-blog.com/2015/05/pixel-gun-3d-hack-cheats.html
#998 AC Repair Thousand 22.05.2015 13:04
Marvelous, what a website it is! This weblog gives helpful
information to us, keep it up.

My web blog AC Repair Thousand Oaks
- Thousand oaks Furnace: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wUjTqF9KNxY
#997 Jeanene 22.05.2015 06:33
Hey there! Do you know if they make any plugins to safeguard
against hackers? I'm kinda paranoid about losing everything I've worked hard on. Any recommendations ?
#996 payday loans in 22.05.2015 06:10
Thank you for every other informative web site.
Where else may I get that kind of information written in such
a perfect manner? I have a mission that I am just now running on,
and I have been at the look out for such information.
#995 Liza 22.05.2015 05:10
What's Happening i am new to this, I stumbled upon this
I've discovered It positively helpful and it has helped me out loads.

I am hoping to contribute & help other customers like its aided me.
Great job.
#994 twitter.com 21.05.2015 08:46
WOW just what I was searching for. Came here by searching for ??????
? ??????. ????? ??????? ??????????
#993 power bank charger 21.05.2015 07:27
It's going to be ending of mine day, however before end I am reading this great piece of writing to
improve my experience.
#992 http://paidsurveysb. 21.05.2015 06:23
Simply want to say your article is as astounding. The clearness in your post
is simply nice and i can assume you're an expert on this
subject. Fine with your permission allow me to grab your RSS feed to keep updated
with forthcoming post. Thanks a million and please keep up the gratifying work.
#991 fifa 15 coins hack 21.05.2015 05:00
He quips, 'I get a distress call from a fair maiden and I'm on the spot.
Luckily, David and Hook are making some progress on the outside, so the girls won't be
lonely long. The collateral damage to honest trading caused by removing trade offers in service to this campaign was obviously seen as a necessary evil.
#990 caricatore portatile 20.05.2015 23:39
Howdy! I simply want to give you a big thumbs
up for your excellent information you have got right here on this post.
I am returning to your web site for more soon.
#989 Allie 20.05.2015 23:35
Hey there! I simply want to offer you a big thumbs up for the
great information you have got here on this post.
I am coming back to your website for more soon.
#988 Heidy 20.05.2015 23:14
Hi I am so glad I found your website, I really found you
by accident, while I was looking on Askjeeve for something else,
Anyhow I am here now and would just like to say thank you for a fantastic post and a all round exciting blog (I
also love the theme/design), I don't have time to go through it all at the
moment but I have bookmarked it and also included your RSS feeds, so when I have time I will be back to read a
lot more, Please do keep up the great work.
#987 Dianne 20.05.2015 07:59
What's up, its nice article concerning media print, we all understand
media is a great source of data.
#986 miscrits world of 20.05.2015 02:07
Hello! Someone in my Myspace group shared this website with us so I came to look
it over. I'm definitely loving the information. I'm book-marking and will be
tweeting this to my followers! Terrific blog and superb style
and design.
#985 boom beach easy 20.05.2015 01:18
To address the rising numbers of tourists who visits the city,
as well as those who are planning to move in to settle down, many real estate developers were converting many residential areas into condos
that offers the luxury and elegance that no apartment can ever
hope to provide to its residents. This seaside community is not just remarkable but also distinctively
different from any other community inside America.

Having spent the last 30+ years living in New Hampshire, Lake Winnipesaukee has been a regular vacation spot for my family.
#984 http://m. 19.05.2015 11:20
Hi, all is going well here and ofcourse every one is sharing information,
that's actually fine, keep up writing.
#983 virility x3 19.05.2015 07:50
Yes! Finally something about lenses work well.
#982 http://fandaily. 19.05.2015 04:49
I go to see daily a few web pages and websites to read content, but
this blog gives quality based posts.

my web site - http://fandaily.info/?attachment_id=17068: http://epanasonic.net/?option=com_k2&view=itemlist&task=user&id=182255
#981 Jaynie Mae Baker 19.05.2015 04:46
Hi there, I found your website by way of Google whilst searching for a similar topic, your website came up, it appears
to be like great. I have bookmarked it in my google bookmarks.

Hi there, simply became aware of your weblog through
Google, and located that it is truly informative. I am going
to watch out for brussels. I will appreciate should
you proceed this in future. Many other folks will likely be benefited from your writing.

My weblog Jaynie Mae Baker
WWE Diva: http://18xxxonline.com/index.php?action=profile&u=410717
#980 virility x3 review 19.05.2015 04:23
My coder is trying to convince me to move to .net from PHP.

I have always disliked the idea because of the costs.
But he's tryiong none the less. I've been using Movable-type on several websites for about a year and am anxious about switching to another platform.
I have heard great things about blogengine.net. Is there a way
I can transfer all my wordpress posts into it? Any help would be greatly appreciated!
#979 http:// 18.05.2015 22:41
Useful info. Lucky me I discovered your site by chance, and I'm shocked why this accident didn't happened earlier!
I bookmarked it.
#978 jaynie mae baker 18.05.2015 15:46
It's a shame you don't have a donate button!
I'd most certainly donate to this outstanding blog! I guess
for now i'll settle for bookmarking and adding your RSS feed to my Google account.

I look forward to brand new updates and will talk about this website with my Facebook group.

Talk soon!

Check out my blog jaynie mae
baker: http://bragboard.net/bragboard/index.php?do=/profile-3231/info/
#977 i joist 18.05.2015 14:01
Thank you for every other fantastic article.

The place else may anybody get that kind of info
iin such an ideal means of writing? I have a presentation nexct
week,and I'm on the searcdh for such info.

my blog post - i joist: http://www.slideshare.net/judiciousidol966/online-power-tool-provider-40617685
#976 free gems clash of 17.05.2015 13:43
This will give you the age range that is deemed appropriate
for the particular game. There may be a time when you wish
to return to the game and do something new. Also popular today is 'Princess Fashion Show Free', a totally free dress-up
app for area who what to produce a story book princess.
#975 Alise 17.05.2015 01:01
Hello, I think your site might be having internet browser compatibility issues.
When I take a look at your site in Safari, it looks fine however,
when opening in I.E., it's got some overlapping issues.

I merely wanted to provide you with a quick heads up! Aside from
that, fantastic website!
#974 Leone 16.05.2015 16:04
I always used to read paragraph in news papers but now as I am a user of internet so from now I am using net for articles, thanks to web.
#973 Vig FX 16.05.2015 04:15
I loved as much as you'll receive carried out right here.
The sketch is attractive, your authored material stylish.
nonetheless, you command get got an shakiness over that you wish be delivering the following.

unwell unquestionably come further formerly again as exactly the same nearly a lot often inside case you
shield this hike.
#972 top eleven easy 15.05.2015 12:02
There are three games that fall under the bracket of Winning Eleven 2010.

The HMRC scandal has sparked a great deal of debate amongst
financial experts and governmental employees, with public
demand for action rising to the forefront.
where are you sending my sick adoptive kid brother.
#971 diet plans for 14.05.2015 17:55
My spouse and I stumbled over here different web page and thought I might as well check things out.
I like what I see so now i'm following you.

Look forward to looking at your web page repeatedly.
#970 http://twitter.com/ 14.05.2015 14:19
I'm not sure exactly why but this blog is loading incredibly
slow for me. Is anyone else having this problem or
is it a issue on my end? I'll check back later and see
if the problem still exists.
#969 quest protein bars 14.05.2015 12:03
Simply desire to say your article is as astounding.
The clarity in your put up is simply spectacular and that i could
assume you are an expert in this subject. Fine along with your
permission allow me to seize your feed to stay up to date with coming near near post.
Thanks a million and please continue the enjoyable work.
#968 minecraft.net 14.05.2015 10:04
Why people still use to read news papers when in this technological
world all is accessible on net?
#967 sekolah ke jepang 20 13.05.2015 16:12
I’m not that much of a internet reader to be honest but your blogs
really nice, keep it up! I'll go ahead and bookmark your site to come back in the future.
#966 curso puente a 13.05.2015 14:01
Good way of describing, and pleasant post to get information on the topic of my presentation focus, which i am going to deliver
in school.
#965 top eleven 2015 13.05.2015 02:21
While he was sadly unable to move into the apartment, the joy we shared setting it up further
fortified our partnership as we faced the very difficult days ahead.

If fearing what one says might bring the unwanted
consequence into reality, the taboo situation is
established. And as any past or present Black - Bird owner would tell you, there has
really never been any real need to change anything.
#964 andrewqqhst@yahoo. 12.05.2015 22:20
Thanks in favor of sharing such a nice idea, post is fastidious, thats why i have read it completely
#963 Clash of Clans Hack 12.05.2015 08:31
I read this post fully concerning the comparison of latest
and previous technologies, it's remarkable article.
#962 Clash of Clans Hack 12.05.2015 05:56
whoah this blog is wonderful i love reading your articles.
Keep up the great work! You realize, many individuals are searching round for this info,
you could aid them greatly.
#961 freemusicdownloadsb. 12.05.2015 01:23
Very quickly this website will be famous amid all
blog visitors, due to it's good articles or
#960 bestdatingsitesnow. 11.05.2015 21:01
What's up to every body, it's my first pay a quick visit of this web
site; this webpage includes remarkable and in fact excellent data designed for
#959 http:// 11.05.2015 20:26
Wow, this post is pleasant, my sister is analyzing these things, therefore I am
going to inform her.
#958 bestdatingsitesnow. 11.05.2015 17:11
Thank you for the good writeup. It in fact was a amusement account it.
Look advanced to far added agreeable from you!
By the way, how can we communicate?
#957 dietplansforwomentol 11.05.2015 15:32
Today, I went to the beachfront with my children. I found a sea shell and gave it to my 4 year old daughter and said "You can hear the ocean if you put this to your ear." She
placed the shell to her ear and screamed. There was a
hermit crab inside and it pinched her ear. She never wants to go back!
LoL I know this is completely off topic but I had to tell someone!
#956 diet plans for 11.05.2015 09:16
Everyone loves it whenever people get together and share ideas.
Great site, stick with it!
#955 Twitter.Com 11.05.2015 05:04
Howdy this is kinda of off topic but I was wanting to
know if blogs use WYSIWYG editors or if you have to manually code with HTML.

I'm starting a blog soon but have no coding skills so
I wanted to get advice from someone with experience. Any help would be greatly appreciated!
#954 Fredericka 11.05.2015 03:58
Hello very nice web site!! Man .. Beautiful
.. Wonderful .. I'll bookmark your website and take the feeds
also? I'm glad to seek out so many useful information right here within the publish, we need develop more techniques on this regard, thank you for
sharing. . . . . .
#953 Apex incredible Pump 10.05.2015 23:47
After I initially commented I seem to have clicked on the -Notify
me when new comments are added- checkbox and from now on every time a comment is added I get 4 emails with the exact same comment.
There has to be a means you can remove me from that service?
Thanks a lot!
#952 minecraft.net 10.05.2015 22:50
Does your site have a contact page? I'm having trouble locating it but, I'd like to
send you an e-mail. I've got some recommendations for your blog you might be
interested in hearing. Either way, great site and I look forward to seeing
it improve over time.
#951 minecraft games 10.05.2015 21:32
I could not refrain from commenting. Exceptionally well written!
#950 minecraft.net 10.05.2015 21:20
Nice answer back in return of this issue with solid arguments and
telling everything concerning that.
#949 minecraft games 10.05.2015 19:06
Its like you read my thoughts! You appear to know a lot approximately this, like you wrote the e book in it or something.

I believe that you can do with a few % to force the message home a bit, but instead
of that, this is excellent blog. A great read.
I'll certainly be back.
#948 twitter.com 10.05.2015 19:00
Hiya! I know this is kinda off topic however I'd figured I'd
ask. Would you be interested in trading links or maybe guest authoring a blog post or vice-versa?

My site discusses a lot of the same subjects as yours and I believe we could greatly benefit
from each other. If you happen to be interested feel free to shoot me an e-mail.
I look forward to hearing from you! Excellent blog by the way!
#947 top eleven hack 10.05.2015 15:46
White blood cells identify harmful organisms and destroy them.
The HMRC scandal has sparked a great deal of debate amongst financial experts and governmental
employees, with public demand for action rising to the
forefront. It also boasts a wide feed chute that allows for the processing of large pieces.
#946 Summoners War Hack 10.05.2015 13:03
Thank you, I've just been searching for information about this subject
for a while and yours is the best I have found out till now.
But, what about the bottom line? Are you certain in regards to the supply?
#945 esa phone number 10.05.2015 10:39
What's up everyone, it's my first pay a quick visit
at this web page, and paragraph is actually fruitful in favor of me, keep up posting these types of articles.
#944 paid surveys 10.05.2015 03:36
Great article, exactly what I needed.
#943 Clash of Clans Gem 10.05.2015 03:12
Woah! I'm really enjoying the template/theme of this site.
It's simple, yet effective. A lot of times it's hard to
get that "perfect balance" between user friendliness and visual appearance.

I must say you have done a very good job with this.

Also, the blog loads very fast for me on Opera. Outstanding Blog!
#942 Web Cash concepts 09.05.2015 23:46
I all the time emailed this website post page to all my contacts, since if like to read it afterward my links will too.
#941 Quest bars 09.05.2015 18:14
Wow that was unusual. I just wrote an extremely long comment but after
I clicked submit my comment didn't show up. Grrrr...

well I'm not writing all that over again. Regardless, just wanted to
say wonderful blog!
#940 http://paidsurveysb. 09.05.2015 17:41
Hi, yup this article is really fastidious and I have learned
lot of things from it on the topic of blogging.
#939 quest bars 09.05.2015 16:34
Inspiring story there. What occurred after? Thanks!
#938 jaynie mae baker 09.05.2015 03:25
There's certainly a lot to know about this topic. I love all the points you
have made.

My blog ... jaynie mae
baker: http://masha-alueva.com/?option=com_k2&view=itemlist&task=user&id=44217
#937 spartagen xt 06.05.2015 11:33
I'm really enjoying the theme/design of your weblog.

Do you ever run into any browser compatibility problems?

A number of my blog audience have complained about my site not operating correctly in Explorer but looks great in Firefox.
Do you have any tips to help fix this problem?
#936 jaynie baker 06.05.2015 09:44
Excellent blog! Do you have any tips and hints
for aspiring writers? I'm planning to start my own site soon but
I'm a little lost on everything. Would you recommend starting with a free platform like Wordpress or go
for a paid option? There are so many choices out there that I'm completely confused ..
Any suggestions? Cheers!

Also visit my website ... jaynie baker: http://jayniemaebaker.com

Добавить комментарий

Прощай мой дом

JavaScript is disabled!
To display this content, you need a JavaScript capable browser.

О проекте

Всё об удивительном и загадочном мире льда и ледников, ландшафтов и людей и их жизни. Всё о планете Земля и о других планетах.

Интересы: снег, вода, горы, лед, катастрофы, все, климат, рельеф, ледники, приледниковые озёра, геоморфология, гляциология, новые теории и проекты в гляциологии, геологии и геоморфологии, а также качественная музыка и всё интересное и в науке, и в экспедициях, что сочтут для себя важным участники проекта, в природе и в жизни.. ....в общем всё.

Наши новости
Текущая информация для студентов
Ключевые слова

logotipЧитателям, слушателям и просто прохожим: сайт и все материалы, опубликованные на нём -  интеллектуальная собственность владельца сайта, и/или авторов соответствующих материалов. Ссылки на сайт, а также ссылки на авторов публикаций,


(и фотографий, разумеется, тоже) обязательны. Соответствующие законы РФ и других стран известны, лицензии - на месте. Воруют, конечно, и не взирая на копирайты, но мы создали сайт для порядочных людей. Не хочется об этом напоминать, но факт любой недобросовестной ссылки-цитирования или пересказа, во- первых, будет предан широчайшей огласке через сеть всеми популярными научными каналами. А далее, возможно, последует и во-вторых..... Спасибо.

Контакты: ran@mail.tomsknet.ru