Климат, лед, вода, ландшафты

Climate, ice, water, landscapes

Рудой Алексей Николаевич

Pazynych V.G. Water-ice-snow and mudflows in mountain areas on final stage of Wurm glaciations – paper two Lake Balaton origin – fresh glance

Представляю очень интересный раздел из монографии В.Г. Пазинича. Полагаю, что российским специалистам эти материалы могут быть неизвестны (как были неизвестны и мне). Большое спасибо автору, который прислал на сайт результаты этих своих актуальных исследований. - А.Н. Рудой.

УДК 551.4

Монография

Пазинич В. Г. // За редакцией В.В. Стецюка. ТОП-5 геоморфологических и палеогеографических проблем Украины. – Киев: « …. », 2012. – 114 с.

ISBN 978-966-96790-2-4

В  издании  изложены  некоторые  результаты  комплексных  исследований геоморфологических  и  палеогеографических  условий  антропогена  Украины,  соседних регионов  Центральной  и  Восточной  Европы,  которые  призваны  исправить  некоторые ложные  теоретические  представления  по  вопросам  формирования  рельефа  земной поверхности указанных территорий в постгляциале и их природных условий.
Значительное внимание уделено расчету энергетических этапов ледниковых времен и послеледниковых процессов, что позволило с гораздо большей вероятностью разрешить ряд проблем, связанных с генезисом гляциального рельефа.
По-новому  рассматривается  проблема  определения  возраста  геологических образований  долинно-террасного  комплекса  бассейна  Среднего  Днепра.  Критически  и доказательно,  с  позиций  соответствия  физическим  законам,  оцениваются  представление  о эоловой  гипотезы  происхождения  лессов.  Обращено  внимание  читателей  на  проблемы установления  времени  формирования  лессовых  толщ.  Выяснено  проблематику  наличия костей  млекопитающих  в  лессовых  толщах  при  отсутствии  следов  их  жизнедеятельности, остатков в них растительности и почвенного покрова.
Доказано  огромные  возможности  дистанционного  исследования  не  только современного  рельефа  земной  поверхности,  но  и  природных  явлений  отдаленных  времен, что  наряду  с  традиционными  видами  дистанционных  исследований,  показаниям  геолого-геоморфологических  методов  позволило  реконструировать  последовательность послеледниковых  событий  в  бассейне  Днепра.  Показано,  также,  результаты  исследования последствий  деятельности  водно-ледниковых  и  селевых  потоков  в  некоторых  горных областях Европы, в частности, тех, которым обязано своим происхождением озеро Балатон.
Для  работников  научных  и  производственных  учреждений  биологического, геологического,  географического,  археологического  направления,  студентов,  аспирантов, преподавателей  географических  и  естественно-географических  факультетов  высших учебных заведений.


Рецензенты:
ПАЩЕНКО В.М., — доктор географических наук, профессор (Национальный аграрный
университет);
СТЕПАНЧУК  В.М.  —  доктор  исторических  наук,  ведущий  научный  сотрудник
Института археологии НАН Украины.
ISBN 978-966-96790-2-4

Статья в работе

Pazynych V.G.

“Swaths of topographic sink depressions

interpreted as remnants of paleomeanders

in the vicinity of Lake Balaton, Hungary:

evidences of young uplift or base level drop?”,

B. Székely and other, 2005. [1]

Water-ice-snow and mudflows in mountain areas on final stage of Wurm glaciations – paper two

Lake Balaton origin – fresh glance

Водо-льодо-снігові  та  селеві  потоки завершальної  стадії  вюрмського  зледеніння   гірських країн – стаття друга

Походження озера Балатон

Woda-lód-śnieg i spływy obszarów górskich na końcowym etapie Wurmskego zlodowaceńja - papier drugi

Balaton pochodzenie

Víz-jég-hó és sár forgalom a hegyvidéki területek végső szakaszában Wurm jegesedések - papír második

Balaton eredetű

Водно-ледово-снежные и селевые потоки завершающей стадии Вюрмского  оледенения горных стран – статья вторая

Происхождение озера Балатон

Title of the article that repeated in epigram reveals all puzzles of the Lake Balaton origin. Traditionally, as in other regions and for solving the most interesting puzzles of nature that have no simple solution have tried to solve involving neotectonic factors. However, the clear answer has not been found.. The results presented in this paper obtained on completely new principles. The analysis performed of well-known geological data based on the new principles implementation first in Ukraine.

First paper, under the same title, published four years ago in Ukrainian [2]. The general map for prospected area of those times show on the fig. 1.  In article, the researching of post glacial phenomena based on the dividing of the glacial periods on the two stages – phase of ice and potential energy accumulation and phase of its release. The first stage corresponds to the building of ice cover, the second - his ablation.

Visualization DEM permit in the first time recognized the traces of the super mudflows on the northeast Ukrainian Carpathians slope (fig. 1). Within the ending of the glacial age simultaneously with heating of the air the ice begun melting and the upper part lost the grip with hard layers in the bottom. After the grip become weaker, under gravity the soft ice was starting downward move.

Karpati

Fig. 1. General map of the northeastern slope of the Ukrainian Carpathians

Energy of the flow was tremendously many times larger than of common water and mudflows. After powerful flows run along valleys. Its lengthwise profiles became stepless and the river inflections became smooth (see top insertion in fig. 2).

visual

Fig. 2. Visual representation of DEM for the northeastern slope of the Ukrainian Carpathians and hypsometric profiles along the Bystryca Solotvynska-river valley (all altitudes a.s.l.). In the black square and on the insertion show the transition from the canyon to the flat valley (D - Dniester; P - Prut; S - Seret, Bs - Bystryca Solotvynska-river 1 - Ivano-Frankivsk, 2 – Kolomyja, 3 - Chernivtsi)

Beside the Dnister-river, the same particularities we can to see in valley of Pryt and Seret (fig. 3). Big interests are transition zones of river valley from the plane to canyon section. Upstream part filled with the clay and loam.  The common section of the deposits after mudflow present on the fig. 4. In downward way the ice-water flow are loading oneself up with the weathering and breakdown rocks. In further they are working as abrasive. The ice-water flow is changing to the high-energy mudflow. Its construction show the flow gradually had losing speed and stopped at some distance in the foothills. At that time the separation of rocks occurred. The boulders and pebbles had been fallen at the bottom and the loess - on upper part. Thus, formed the gravel terraces such as those known in the Danube valley and the Riss-river [17].

Vis3


Fig. 3. Comparison  the Middle Dnister and Pryt-river valleys. On the insertion (left), the cutting of the Cheremosh-valley into the Seret-valley (red square on picture). On the insertion (right), the transition of Pryt-river from the canyon to the flat valley (white square on the picture).

Paz4

Fig. 4. The picture of the career wall located in the Prut-valley near Kolomyja. Top stratum is clay, lower stratum – conglomerate.

On the insert (left) to fig. 3 we can see the unique crossing two rivers, Cheremosh and Seret. Initially (time is unknown) the main way of mudflows was along Seret-valley. Later they went along Cheremosh-valley, which went deeper into the valley Seret up to 150 m. This indicates how much powerful the streams were.

The magnitude of the mudflows observed in the valley of the Prut-river near Kolomyja (fig. 5). Large radius bend of the river and its smoothness might make the powerful flows only. They swapped away all obstacles on your way. The existing on the left bank of three levels is the result of three super mudflows.

PAZ5

Fig. 5. DEM-segment of the Prut-valley and the hypsometric profile near Kolomyja-town. 1 – The open-pit where the picture (fig. 5) was took.

There are available data for determining the sequence of filled Dniester’ valleys during the last 20 Ka (fig. 6). It is results of M. Huhmann [4]. On fig. 6 we can see different stages of the filling the valley from the edge to the channel. Three recent dates are matching of the fossil soils dating from the buried outcrop of former first terrace. Ukrainian geologists obtained the similar results for these soils 30 years ago [5]. They ages are 340-900 years, 1700-1760 years and 2570-3000 years.

PAZ66

Fig. 6. The geochronology schematic section of the Dniester-valley [3].

In view of the foregoing, we can find explanations for interruptions in populated of the Dniester-valley by ancient man and changes of the settlements position. In Acheulean time in the Dniester-valley, in canyon section, the group settlements existed [6]. These settlements were existed in the period 23-17 Ka BP. Between 10 – 13 Ka BP in the Dniester-river remained only two settlements. Until 8 Ka BP settlements are not revealed. On cross-section (fig. 6) they points out 11,5 –10,5 Ka BP segment (rightmost) was formatted. It is meaning that settlements were covered with mudflow. Re-populating lasted two thousand years. Since 8 Ka BP until 6 Ka BP. On cross-section (fig. 6) it points out that in 7,3 –5,5 Ka BP the next segment was formatted. Interruptions that appear in populated Dniester were fixed in multi-layering structure of some Paleolithic sites were caused by mudflow intensification on the northeastern Carpathians slope.

The multi-layering Paleolithic sites there are in canyon and as well as in the plain piece of the Dniester. The stratigraphy section of the excavation Molodove 5 site lies in the Dniester' canyon given in fig. 6A. Site have two cultural layers associated with sedimentation of the loess loam. Similar situation observed on Ezupil' site (fig. 6B). The existence of the several fossil soils shows that the interruptions between mudflows lasted hundreds or thousands of years. Availability of the different number of buried soils and cultural layers on these sites can be explaining according to the sites ages and activity of the mudflows on Dniester' tributaries.

 

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