Климат, лед, вода, ландшафты

Climate, ice, water, landscapes

Рудой Алексей Николаевич

Палеогляциология, палеогеография плейстоцена. "Glacier-dammed lakes..." Alexei N. Rudoy

Fire_LogoЭта статья совсем не новая, хотя актуальности не утеряла. На неё многие ссылаются, однако, если на западе её легко можно почитать, то те, кто ссылается на эту работу в России, вряд ли её видели (за исключением тех моих коллег, которым я презентовал оттиски статьи лично). А потому, эти вот ссылки как раз могут и относиться к "дежурным", к "ссылкам на ссылки". Поэтому я счёл уместным поместить часть текста и гиперссылку на оригинал.

Glacier-dammed lakes and geological work of glacial superfloods in the Late Pleistocene, Southern Siberia, Altai Mountains

© Alexei N. Rudoy

Laboratory of Pleistocene Geology and Palaeogeography, Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Komsomolsky Pr.75, 634041 Tomsk, Siberia, Russia

Abstract
 

Quaternary glacier-dammed lakes of Southern Siberia produced cataclysmic superfloods-floodstreams at the initial and final glacial stages, when the ice dams were unstable. Consequently, the initial surface was greatly and geologically instantly transformed. Morphologic associations of mountainous scablands developed, similar to the diluvial complexes ofthe Channeled Scabland in North America: giant diluvial ramparts and terraces-bars, diluvial berms and giant current ripple relief. Diluvial-erosional and evorsional forms, including spillways, outburst and oversplash gorges, and ‘‘dry waterfalls’’ are also present. The discharges of the glacial superfloods, which have been calculated by independent methods, were hundreds ofcubic meters per second at the locations where the giant current ripple marks were formed, up to millions of cubic meters per second within the gorges. Maximum discharges of 18 ×106m3/s were characteristic of the diluvial floods in the runoff channel from the Chuya–Kuray system of the glacierdammed lakes below the mouth ofthe Kuray depression as far as the settlement of Chibit. The power ofthose floods reached 106W/m2. These values exceed the hydraulic parameters of the jokulhlaups from Late Quaternary Lake Missoula in North America, the floods of which previously were considered the most powerful freshwater streams in Earth history. The last phenomenal glacial superflood with discharges in excess of 1×106m3/s occurred in the Chuya and Katun valleys no later than 13 000 years ago. Afterwards, the glacier-dammed lakes degraded simultaneously with the degradation of the glaciers. The glacier-dammed lakes ofthe intermontane basins in Southern Siberia disappeared completely at some time after 5000 years ago. Calculations of the hydraulics and the estimates ofthe geological activity of the Quaternary jokulhlaups mean that the diluvial processes of relief formation can now be viewed as the most powerful exogenous process. 

© 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

JavaScript is disabled!
To display this content, you need a JavaScript capable browser.

1. Introduction_20110503_1318694566

 All ofthe mountains from Eastern Kazakhstan (Tien Shan, Kazakh Altai) to the mountains in the Baikal region belong to the mountains of Southern Siberia, which also includes those of Altai and Tuva. This grand mountainous chain forms a part of the Russian State boundary in the south. The Altai is located near the centre of Asia and is the highest of all mountain ranges in Siberia (some ofthe maximum measured elevations are over 4000 m). The Altai Mountains consist of vast intermontane basins, which were occupied by near-glacial lakes in the Pleistocene, and of high mountain ranges that carry the grandest of modern Siberian glaciers. Numerous climatic zones, which are also peculiar to a certain extent to the neighbouring mountainous countries, are present. The nival-glacial zone changes downwards into the taiga and tundra, into the steppes and the deserts of high-mountain basins, which in turn are adjacent to the mixed woods zone and the zone of South-Siberian steppes. That is why, from the viewpoint of physical geography, the Altai may be considered representative of the whole huge mountainous region of Southern Siberia. From the palaeogeographical and geomorphologic aspects, the Altai is typical of the whole of Central Asia.
 

It is in the Altai that a number of great scientific discoveries have been made during the last decades, which are important for Russian and world-wide Geomorphology, Palaeoglaciology and Quaternary Geology in the 20th century. The chief ones are:
 

(1) Discovery and identification of geological-geomorphological traces of giant Late-Quaternary glacier-dammed  lakes whose regular outbursts resulted in generation of glacial superfloods. Those floods left behind exotic relief forms and deposits (in the first place, giant current ripple marks and diluvial swells and terraces-‘‘bars’’according to Bretz, 1923), similar to the diluvial morpholithologic associations of the Channeled Scabland in North America; and

(2) Discovery of the geological phenomenon of Quaternary Ledoyoms-huge amounts of ice in the intermontane basins. Those ice bodies have a very complicated paragenetic relationship with glacier-dammed lakes (Rudoy, 1991, 1998). The present article deals with the problem of geological and geomorphological effects of the Quaternary jokulhlaups, and that of palaeohydrology and hydraulics of the glacier-dammed lakes and glacial superfloods.

Also see: 

 Baker V.R., Benito G., Rudoy A.N. Paleohydrology of late Pleistocene Superflooding, Altay Mountains, Siberia // Science, 1993. — Vol. 259. — Р. 348—352.

 Rudoy A.N., Baker V.R. Sedimentary Effects of cataclysmic late Pleistocene glacial Flooding, Altai Mountains, Siberia // Sedimentary Geology, 1993. — Vol. 85. — No. 1—4. — Р. 53-62.

Quaternary International 87 (2002) 119–140 _-__QI.pdf



 

Комментарии  

 
#11 Elo League Of 24.04.2014 14:16
First, you must determine what your needs are. You possess the knowledge it takes to conquer any
game, foe and even real life scenarios. You can get the next game you need for an affordable cost when you are doing this.


Feel free to visit my web blog Elo League Of Legends: http://kiosk.centerstart.ru/node/408070
Цитировать
 
 
#10 clashofclansgemhack2 19.04.2014 15:35
My coder is trying to persuade me to movee to .net from PHP.
I have always disliked the idea because of the expenses.
But he's tryiong none the less. I've been using Movable-type
on numerous websites for about a year and am worried aabout
switching to another platform. I have heard excellent things about blogengine.net.

Is there a way I can transfer all my wordpress posts iinto it?
Anny help would be really appreciated!
Цитировать
 
 
#9 castle clash hack 17.04.2014 14:47
You actually make it seem so easy with your presentation but I find this topic to
be really something that I think I would never understand.
It seems too complex and very broad for me. I'm
looking forward for your next post, I will try to get the hang of
it!
Цитировать
 
 
#8 2014 Nike Air Max 90 13.04.2014 22:27
Hi there! This post couldn't be written any better!
Looking through this post reminds me of my previous roommate!

He always kept preaching about this. I am going to send this article to him.
Fairly certain he'll have a great read. I appreciate you for
sharing!

My web blog ... 2014 Nike Air Max 90 Man Claret
Sale: http://www.hypnotherapy-barrow.com/nike-air-max-90-man-claret-p-456/
Цитировать
 
 
#7 Debora 12.04.2014 12:46
Keep this going please, great job!
Цитировать
 
 
#6 Hermelinda 08.04.2014 13:29
If you are having a teenager birthday you may consider an interactive game,
obstacle course or boxing ring with big gloves. There are hundreds of diverse branded boxing gloves, which have
no sturdiness. t need to buy any cables to access this,
but if you want, you could hook up your computer to your big-screen TV.
Цитировать
 
 
#5 Audrea 06.04.2014 10:45
The very first thing I continually do is dig out the battery and charger to get
them plugged in and charging. Additionally, you develop a replacement sense of confidence
as your self esteem is boosted with your improved health
and image. He graduated from Attended Coe College (Cedar Rapids)
with emphasis in Business.
Цитировать
 
 
#4 Капри 27.10.2011 23:47
Много ссылок на этот фильм в сети. В самом деле, лучше фильмов в сети пока я не встречал по этой проблеме.
Цитировать
 
 
#3 Сергей Жарков 21.06.2011 22:36
Отличный информативный фильм. И учебный, и научный. Спасибо!
Цитировать
 
 
#2 paul 01.06.2011 12:12
Да, фильм получился удачным. Очень удачным. Причём - он же делался попутно, энтузиастами, хотя и профессионалами . Даже музыка для него написана специально. И главное - этот фильм был первым в мире о таких потоках, фильм ВВС о Мизуле вышел гораздо позже и оказался гораздо скучнее! Ребята - большие молодцы.
Цитировать
 

Добавить комментарий


Прощай мой дом

JavaScript is disabled!
To display this content, you need a JavaScript capable browser.

О проекте

Всё об удивительном и загадочном мире льда и ледников, ландшафтов и людей и их жизни. Всё о планете Земля и о других планетах.

Интересы: снег, вода, горы, лед, катастрофы, все, климат, рельеф, ледники, приледниковые озёра, геоморфология, гляциология, новые теории и проекты в гляциологии, геологии и геоморфологии, а также качественная музыка и всё интересное и в науке, и в экспедициях, что сочтут для себя важным участники проекта, в природе и в жизни.. ....в общем всё.

Наши новости
Текущая информация для студентов
Ключевые слова
Авторизация



logotipЧитателям, слушателям и просто прохожим: сайт и все материалы, опубликованные на нём -  интеллектуальная собственность владельца сайта, и/или авторов соответствующих материалов. Ссылки на сайт, а также ссылки на авторов публикаций,

trudovaslava.info

(и фотографий, разумеется, тоже) обязательны. Соответствующие законы РФ и других стран известны, лицензии - на месте. Воруют, конечно, и не взирая на копирайты, но мы создали сайт для порядочных людей. Не хочется об этом напоминать, но факт любой недобросовестной ссылки-цитирования или пересказа, во- первых, будет предан широчайшей огласке через сеть всеми популярными научными каналами. А далее, возможно, последует и во-вторых..... Спасибо.

Контакты: ran@mail.tomsknet.ru